Macrolichens of the Pygmy
James A. Malachowski
Glossary of Macro Lichen Terms
Anisotomic branching: Branching with a single major branch, and smaller lateral branches.
Apothecium: The fruiting structure within which the asci are borne and which is usually disk or cup-shaped.
Areole: A small angular division of a surface, separated from others by chinks in the surface.
Areolate: Having flat angular areas separated by white lines or chinks.
Ascus: The sac-like cell which contains ascospores and is located in the hymenium layer of the ascocarp.
Axial: The angle between the main podetium and a branch, or between two branches or lobes.
Caesius: Bluish gray.
Caespitose: Tufted or clumped.
Cartilaginous layer: The inner horny layer of the podetium next to the hollow center.
Ciliary ramuli: Ramuli that resemble cilia, usually prostrate on the cortex and concolorous with it; less than 1 mm long.
Cortex: An outer layer of the thallus or podetium composed of heavily gelatinized lyphae.
Corticolous: Growing on bark.
Corymbose: An arrangement of a cluster or whorl of small branches which come to the same general height.
Crenate: With small rounded projections along the edges.
Cyphellae: Large circular pores on the lower surface of Sticta.
Decorticate: Losing its cortex, or lacking cortex due to disintegration.
Esorediate: Lacking soredia.
Exciple: A layer of the apothecium which encircles the hymenium.
Farinose: Very fine, powdery, like flour.
Fibril Outgrowth from a branch that includes algae, medullary hyphae, and axis, surrounded by cortex;
Glabrous: Free from any roughness, hairs or unevenness, smooth.
Granulose: Composed of coarse granules.
Hymenium: The layer of the ascocarp which is composed of asci and paraphyses.
Impelilucid: Opaque, not translucent.
Incised: Sharply cut.
Isidium: A corticated outgrowth of the cortex.
Isotomic branching: Branching into two or more branches of equal size.
Laciniate: Cut into narrow lobes.
Papillae: Small usually rounded bumps which are hemispherical, conical, or cylindrical and consist solely of cortical tissue
Pellucid: More or less translucent, with the appearance of oiled paper.
Podetium: The hollow erect stalk of the Cladonia.
Primary squamules: The small, leafy, clustered, vegetative parts of the thallus on the substratum which may later give rise to the podetia.
Pseudocyphellae: Simple pores in the upper or lower cortex - protruding medulla hyphae.
Pycnidium: A small flask-shaped organ bearing asexual reproductive bodies, the conidia.
Ramuli: Fibrils extending from the cortex and concolorous with it, 1-3 mm long.
Rhizoid: A hair-like multicellular growth projecting from the underside of the thallus of squamules.
Rimose: Chinky, having a cracked surface.
Rugose: Wrinkled, covered with wrinkles.
Saxicolous: Growing on rock.
Sinuate: With a wavy margin.
Soralium: A structure within which soredia are borne, or a distinct cluster or soredia.
Soredium: A tiny powdery propagule, containing a group of algal cells surrounding a dense layer of fungal hyphae but lacking a cortex.
Sympodium: A type of branching in which one member of a group of branches becomes the main branch, and its growth displaces the other branches so that they appear lateral.
Terete: Cylindrical in shape.
Terricolous: Growing on soil.
Tomentum: A layer of dense matted hairs.
Truncate: Ending abruptly, as if the tip were cut off.
Verrucula: A small warty protrusion. Often low, broad-based protrusions from cortex, not conspicuous in profile-often opening into soralia, especially on upper branches.