Macrolichens of the Pygmy Forest
James A. Malachowski

Glossary of Macro Lichen Terms

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Anisotomic branching:  Branching with a single major branch, and smaller lateral branches.

Apothecium:  The fruiting structure within which the asci are borne and which is usually disk or cup-shaped.

Areole:  A small angular division of a surface, separated from others by chinks in the surface.

Areolate:  Having flat angular areas separated by white lines or chinks.

Ascus:  The sac-like cell which contains ascospores and is located in the hymenium layer of the ascocarp.

Axial:  The angle between the main podetium and a branch, or between two branches or lobes.

Caesius:  Bluish gray.

Caespitose:  Tufted or clumped.

Cartilaginous layer:  The inner horny layer of the podetium next to the hollow center.

Ciliary ramuli:  Ramuli that resemble cilia, usually prostrate on the cortex and concolorous with it; less than 1 mm long.

Cortex:  An outer layer of the thallus or podetium composed of heavily gelatinized lyphae.

Corticolous:  Growing on bark.

Corymbose:  An arrangement of a cluster or whorl of small branches which come to the same    general height.

Crenate:  With small rounded projections along the edges.

Cyphellae:  Large circular pores on the lower surface of Sticta.

Decorticate:  Losing its cortex, or lacking cortex due to disintegration.

Dilated:   Broadened.

Esorediate:  Lacking soredia.

Exciple:   A layer of the apothecium which encircles the hymenium.

Farinose:  Very fine, powdery, like flour.

Fibril  Outgrowth from a branch that includes algae, medullary hyphae, and axis, surrounded by cortex;

Foliose:  Leaf-like.

Fusiform:  Spindle-shaped.

Glabrous:  Free from any roughness, hairs or unevenness, smooth.

Glaucescent:  Bluish-green.

Granulose:  Composed of coarse granules.

Hymenium:  The layer of the ascocarp which is composed of asci and paraphyses.

Impelilucid:  Opaque, not translucent.

Incised:  Sharply cut.

Isidium:  A corticated outgrowth of the cortex.

Isotomic branching:  Branching into two or more branches of equal size.

Laciniate:  Cut into narrow lobes.

Papillae:  Small usually rounded bumps which are hemispherical, conical, or cylindrical and consist solely of cortical tissue

Pellucid:  More or less translucent, with the appearance of oiled paper.

Podetium:  The hollow erect stalk of the Cladonia.

Primary squamules:  The small, leafy, clustered, vegetative parts of the thallus on the substratum which may later give rise to the podetia.

Pseudocyphellae:  Simple pores in the upper or lower cortex - protruding medulla  hyphae.

Pycnidium:  A small flask-shaped organ bearing asexual reproductive bodies, the conidia.

Ramuli:  Fibrils extending from the cortex and concolorous with it, 1-3 mm long.

Rhizoid:   A hair-like multicellular growth projecting from the underside of the thallus of  squamules.

Rimose:  Chinky, having a cracked surface.

Rugose:  Wrinkled, covered with wrinkles.

Saxicolous:  Growing on rock.

Sinuate:  With a wavy margin.

Soralium:  A structure within which soredia are borne, or a distinct cluster or soredia.

Soredium:  A tiny powdery propagule, containing a group of algal cells surrounding a dense  layer of fungal hyphae but lacking a cortex.

Sympodium:  A type of branching in which one member of a group of branches becomes the main branch, and its growth displaces the other branches so that they appear lateral.

Terete:  Cylindrical in shape.

Terricolous:  Growing on soil.

Tomentum:  A layer of dense matted hairs.

Truncate:  Ending abruptly, as if the tip were cut off.

Verrucula:  A small warty protrusion. Often low, broad-based protrusions from cortex, not conspicuous in profile-often opening into soralia, especially on upper branches.